General Water Treatment
Water treatment is any process that makes water more suitable for a particular application. The purpose of water treatment is the removal or reduction of contaminants concentrations so that the water is fit for its application.
Some of the offered water treatment services include but not exclusive to:
- Water Filtration
- Activated Carbon Filtration
- Potable Water & Disinfection
Water filtration, or purification, is the process of removing undesirable suspended solids, gases and contaminants from water through physical and/or chemical processes.
Water in general contains many suspended contaminants, some could originate from the source like bacteria, or could originate from the infrastructure or method of delivery to the point of use, like algae, fungi and suspended particles.
Filtration is a physical water treatment process that is naturally occurring in rivers and streams, utilizing a medium through which solids and gases are entrapped in, and only fluid can pass (filtrate). The efficiency of the filtration will depend on the pore size, type of medium used, amount of medium used, flow rate and any biological activity that might be occurring in the media.
Sometimes, filtration is aided by the addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate or iron (III) salts. These additives cause several chemical and physical interactions to form larger particles, which facilitates the adsorptions and removal of the particles by the media.
Where applicable, a standalone media filtration system could be installed for easy particle removal and polishing. However, more than frequently, the water source would need further filtration and treatment, as such, media filtration is mostly used as one a pretreatment process and safeguard for other downstream processes.
Carbon filtering is the usage of activated carbon, or charcoal, for the removal of organic particles, undesirable odor and taste from water. Carbon granules used in filtering provide a large surface area to pore structure ratio, allowing for increased exposure to the active sites within the media. One gram of activated carbon has a surface area of over 3,000 square meter.
These filters are most commonly used to extract the free chlorine from the system, rendering the water suitable for downstream use. As with any water treatment method, activated carbon filtration does not remove every type of contaminant. Some examples of what is not removed by activated carbon include sodium, fluoride, nitrates and microbes.
Disinfection is an essential step towards ensuring that water is safe to consume. Most water treatment systems require the addition of disinfectants to eliminate or inactivate pathogenic microorganisms that could be dangerous for humans.
Disinfection methods in two, primary and secondary. Primary disinfection methods attain the proper level of microorganism elimination, these methods are: ozone, ultraviolet light, chlorination, and chloramines. While secondary disinfection methods ensure the prevention of microorganism regrowth by maintaining a disinfectant residual in the water.
Disinfection efficiency is greatly multiplied when used in combination with conventional treatment, such as filtration, coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Depending on the end use of the treated water, a proper disinfection method would be used.
Ozone, O3, is an instable allotrope of oxygen. Ozone is most frequently generated by the "Corona discharge method”, in which ambient air passes through a system of high voltage where it is ionized, resulting in ozone molecules and nitrogen oxides.
Ozone not only is a strong disinfectant, but also a powerful oxidant, meaning that it could act upon most contaminants. Disinfection using ozone occurs by oxidizing the organic contaminants and converting them into an insoluble form that is later filtered out.
Because ozone is unstable and has a very short lifetime, a secondary disinfectant, chlorine in most cases, is usually required to maintain proper disinfectant levels in water. Also, as a result of its base oxygen molecule, once reacted, ozone vanishes without a trace, reverting back to pure oxygen, with out the addition of by-products.
Ultraviolet irradiation kills and deactivates pathogenic microorganisms by penetrating their cell wall and disturbing their genetic material, leaving them incapable of performing essential cellular functions.
UV irradiation is a highly effective disinfection method, however, just like with ozone, a secondary disinfectant should be used to prevent the regrowth of these microorganisms This method of disinfection is usually preferred as it does not require chemical oxidants, and it is readily available with very few components.
The application of UV irradiation as a disinfectant has been in practice since the 1950s, and used primarily for medical sanitation and sterilization, progressively being adopted in sterilizing drinking water.
Chlorination is the practice in which chlorine (Cl2) or hypochlorite (ClO-) is added to the water. Chlorine, as a chemical compound, is considered an extremely effective disinfectant, whereby it is added to municipal water supplies to kill bacteria and viruses that are commonly found in water reservoirs. It works by penetrating the surface of microorganisms and disinteresting the lipids of the cell wall, rending the cells nonfunctional.
Regardless of the application, chlorination is a very popular method of disinfectant among clients, as it is easy to handle, capable, and inexpensive. Chlorine is introduced to the system in the form of either an aqueous solution, or hypochlorite tablets.
Miscellaneous Water Treatment
Of course, at ANHAR Water Technology, our team realizes that no two water sources are identical, and sometimes, custom solutions need to be devised to solve specific challenges.
Some of the more frequent problems that are encountered are the following:
- Removal of Oil and Grease
- Removal of Iron & Manganese
- Demand for pure and ultra-pure water
- Conditioning water for chiller or boiler use (Industrial applications)
Whatever your challenge is, our team is ready to offer you the best solution that suits your needs. E-mail us at: [email protected]
or call +961 7 740730 to speak with our team who can help you in choosing the appropriate solution to meet your necessities.