Water is essentially judged by its quality and mineral content, and while a moderate mineral content could have some health benefits in the case of drinking water, however, it strikes as a serious problem in domestic and industrial applications.
Water with high mineral content, more specifically rich in calcium and magnesium, is classified as "Hard” water. It is usually identified by its inability to foam soap easily, and formation of scale deposits on kettles and heaters.
Water softening systems are used in this case for the removal of these mineral through an ion-exchange resin, extending the lifetime of your plumbing, and providing a cleaner feel.
Ion-Exchange resin systems act upon hardness ions, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and replaces them with sodium (Na+) or potassium (K+) ions. The resin used in these systems are made of organic polymers to which hardness ions bind in exchange for the replacement, sodium, ions. Once all the available Na+ ions are consumed and replaced by hardness ions, the resin much be regenerated using a brine solution.